John Carnevale, PhD is President of Carnevale Associates, LLC, a public policy consulting firm that conducts strategic planning, performance measurement and management, and policy and program evaluation for a range of clients in both public and private sectors. Prior to becoming President of Carnevale Associates, LLC, Dr. Carnevale worked for over 18 years in Federal Government service where he was employed as an economist within the Executive Branch. Dr. Carnevale served for 11 years at the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) as the Director of Planning, Budget, Research, and Evaluation. Working under three administrations and four drug czars to shape national drug control policy, Dr. Carnevale directed the formulation of numerous National Drug Control Strategies and the federal drug control budgets to implement them. Dr. Carnevale also conducted and managed the policy and program research that ONDCP used to inform national policy and assess the performance of the National Drug Control Strategy, serving as the lead architect of the performance measurement system used by ONDCP to evaluate the performance of the National Drug Control Strategy. Prior to working at ONDCP, Dr. Carnevale was employed as a researcher and a budget examiner at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), where he designed the methodology to estimate the Federal Government’s spending on drug control activities and led efforts to inform OMB senior management about the effectiveness of federal substance abuse policies and programs aimed at supply reduction and demand reduction. Prior to OMB, Dr. Carnevale worked at the U.S. Department of Treasury where he analyzed fiscal matters related to the federal grants-in-aid system, state and local finance, and federal tax policy. When Dr. Carnevale left federal service in 2000, he did so to establish a public policy firm with the mission of closing the knowledge gap between academic research and the understanding of effective policies and programs. His firm has engaged domestic and international clients at all levels of government and in the private sector. Dr. Carnevale has testified before the United States Congress on matters pertaining to the effectiveness of drug policy and the public drug control budget. He provides expert testimony, briefings, and policy analyses for Members of Congress, state and local government leaders, International Organizations, and public interest groups. Dr. Carnevale holds a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Maine and a Doctorate in Public Finance Economics from the Maxwell School at Syracuse University.